1985). The experimental results showed that a low amount of total sugar was released (2.15 g/L) using 1% SHPKC. Table 3 shows that the highest ABE yield obtained was from 2% and 3% SAPKC with the same value of 0.24 g/g. 180 h). Figures 1 to 3 show the growth profiles of C. acetobutylicum YM1 with variations in the solvents, organic acids, and culture pH measured using various sugars tested during 72 h of the batch ABE fermentations. Table 3 shows the results of the acid pretreatment of PKC. 146, 200-207. Lett. Unexpectedly, glucose utilization in 824(pIPA3) was less than in the other strains. The TYA composition consisted of the following components: tryptone 6 g/L; yeast extract 2 g/L; ammonium acetate 3 g/L; KH2PO4 0.5 g/L; MgSO4.7H2O 0.3 g/L; and FeSO4.7H2O 0.01 g/L (Komonkiat and Cheirsilp 2013). The pH decreased after the peak, and the concentrations of acetic and butyric acids slightly increased (Fig. For the ABE fermentation in continuous Clostridium acetobutylicum culture, this paper presents a kinetic model that includes the effects of key metabolic intermediates and enzymes as well as culture pH, product inhibition, and glucose inhibition. The authors wish to express their gratitude to the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia for financing this research work through grants DPP-2015-023 and GUP-2016-06. Fed-batch fermentation with in situ removal of the solvents.It is well known that the fermentation of solventogenic clostridia can be extended with in situ removal of solvents (6). DOI: 10.1007/s12010-009-8814-6, Kalil, M. S., Kit, P. W., Yusoff, W. M. W., and Abdul Rahman, K. (2003). Microbiol. 24(3-4), 151-159 DOI: 10.1016/S0141-0229(98)00101-X, Long, S., Jones, D. T., and Woods, D. R. (1984). Shotgun proteomics provides a direct approach to study the whole proteome of an organism in depth. “Challenges in biobutanol production: How to improve the efficiency?,” Renew. This result also indicated that the sulphuric acid pretreatment of PKC was more efficient to recover sugars than using a hydrochloric acid pretreatment. Background: In acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 using corn-based substrate, the solvents are generally produced at a ratio of 3:6:1 (A:B:E, w/w). 2008). In the past decades, renewable lignocellulosic feedstocks have provided economic and sustainable options for cost-effective butanol production through microbial acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum [ 1, 2 ]. “Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated soybean straw,” Biomass Bioenerg. “Dilute acid pretreatment of oil palm trunk biomass at high temperature for enzymatic hydrolysis,” Energ. DOI: 10.1016/j.biombioe.2008.04.009, Shukor, H., Abdeshahian, P., Al-Shorgani, N. K. N., Hamid, A. To date, however, this experiment has not been conducted using metabolically engineered clostridial strains. DOI: 10.1007/bf00253609, García, V., Päkkilä, J., Ojamo, H., Muurinen, E., and Keiski, R. L. (2011). Adv., Biotechnol. The PKC was provided by the Malaysia palm oil board (MPOB). “Production of liquid biofuels from renewable resources,” Prog. The ABE solvents and organic acids (acetic acid and butyric acid) were measured using a gas chromatography system (7890A GC-System; Agilent Technologies, Alto, CA, USA) equipped with a flame ionization detector and a 30-m capillary column (Equity1; 30 m × 0.32 mm ×1.0 µm film thickness; Supelco Co., Bellefonte, PA, USA). 2010). The SAPKC and HAPKC samples were filtered using cheese cloth prior to fermentation to remove the sediments. Acetone was successfully converted to isopropanol by the expression of the adhB-593 gene in PJC4BK(pIPA3-Cm2) (Fig. Clostridium acetobutylicum is a group of Gram-positive, spore-forming, obligate anaerobes that possess pathways capable of converting sugars into solvent, which is known as acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation ().This process has recently been revived because of the potential application of butanol as an advanced biofuel. The strain is Clostridium Acetobutylicum you can buy it online from culture vendors for less than 15 dollars. 2013). The supernatant liquid was collected, and the pH was adjusted to 6.2 using 10 M NaOH solution and used as such for ABE fermentation. “Enzyme production and profile by Aspergillus niger during solid substrate fermentation using palm kernel cake as substrate,” Appl. Ezeji et al. 135, 262-268. Recently, the population dynamics of C. acetobutylicum was successfully investigated using flow cytometry (39), which might be useful for our future studies toward better understanding clostridial physiology and solventogenesis during gas-stripping-coupled fermentation. Cell growth was monitored by measuring the OD600 using an Ultrospec 3100 Pro spectrophotometer (Amersham Biosciences, Uppsala, Sweden). “The relationship between sporulation and solvent production in Clostridium acetobutylicum P262,” Biotechnol. The production of butanol and other solvents by C. acetobutylicum NCIMB13357 in this study is shown in Figure 1(a) . The reducing sugar concentration was 11.9 g/L (only mannose) when the saccharification was performed with an enzyme loading of 10% w/w (Fig. Abstract. This could be attributed to the high total of sugars recovered from 2% SAPKC compared with that using other acid pretreatments tested. The metabolism of C. acetobutylicum is typically … biphasic fermentation model (Fig. 2. Fermentations of each strain were conducted in duplicate using independently grown cultures, and average values are presented. 2013). Biotech. The reduction of reducing sugar production at a higher enzyme loading could have been due to the saturation of the substrate surface with the enzyme (Xu et al. “Butanol production from wood pulping hydrolysate in an integrated fermentation-gas stripping process,” Bioresource. (2004). The viability of most fermentation processes is very much dependent on the cheap fermentation medium used. The CoAT activity in PJC4BK(pIPA3-Cm2) was lower than that in 824(pIPA3) both in the acidogenic phase (25 versus 40.1 mU/mg protein) and in the solventogenic phase (109 versus 458 mU/mg protein), although CoAT was overexpressed. “The generation of fermentation inhibitors during dilute acid hydrolysis of softwood,” Enzyme Microb. A similar consumption of glucose (29.7 g/L) and mannose (28.6 g/L) was observed by the YM1 strain. Bioeng. The viability of most fermentation processes is very much dependent on the cheap fermentation medium used. Here, we sought an alternative and simpler approach, namely, adding the conversion step from acetone to isopropanol, which can be used as a fuel additive, into C. acetobutylicum. 2.4 g/liter of isopropanol with ca. Biotechnol. “Acetone-butanol fermentation revisited,” Microbiol. Energ. Bioeng. The ABE production from glucose was similar to that produced from EHPKC and 1% SAPKC. The pretreatment results revealed that when H2SO4 and HCl were used, the concentrations of total sugar recovered from pretreated rice bran were 31.43 g/L and 9.7 g/L, respectively. Effects of buk inactivation on total alcohol production. “Biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass – An overview,” Bioresource Technol. In order to reduce the amounts of residual acids, C. acetobutylicum PJC4BK, a buk-inactivated strain (9), was employed. Keywords: Palm kernel cake (PKC); Clostridium acetobutylicum YM1; Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE); Pretreatment. Hanai et al. The maximum OD600 of 22.1 reached during gas-stripping fermentation was higher than that obtained from the batch fermentation (OD600, 17.1). Palm kernel cake (PKC) is known as a lignocellulosic residue that is obtained after the extraction of the oil from palm kernels. IBE production in a buk-inactivated strain.Although 824(pIPA3) resulted in increased total alcohol production, butanol production declined. (Chen et al. In mixed sugar (glucose, xylose, galactose, and arabinose) fermentation, the culture preferred glucose and arabinose over galactose and xylose. This study also revealed that PKC can be regarded as a potentially low cost substrate for ABE fermentation. These byproducts are also known as microbial inhibitors, including furfural, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (HMF), acetic acid, formic acid, and levulinic acid (Larsson et al. 79, 924-929. The lowest ABE yield (0.09 g/g) was obtained when 1% HAPKC was utilized. Whenever the glucose concentration in the fermentation broth became less than 10 g/liter, 100 ml of a 500-g/liter glucose solution was added to the reactor. Butanol is a second generation biofuel produced by Clostridium acetobutylicum through acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation process. The fermentation of EHPKC with an initial reducing sugar concentration of 11 g/L for 72 h was able to produce 1.06 g/L ABE and 0.74 g/L butanol within 48 h, leaving behind 0.54 g/L sugar, with an ABE productivity and yield of 0.02 g/L.h and 0.07 g/g, respectively. Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation of sugar using solventogenic strains of Clostridiumis a well-known industrial process, and it was used during the early and middle 20th century for the production of solvents. The profile of ABE fermentations of glucose as the carbon source by C. acetobutylicum YM1: (a) solvents and OD; (b) sugar, pH, and acids concentration, Fig. (B) Compositions of solvents present in each stripped solution and the broth in the bioreactor after the fermentation. Biochem. In the past few years, many studies have focused on the use of lignocellulose materials, such as palm oil mill effluent (Kalil et al. The inoculum used was 200 ml, thus giving a headspace volume of 5 liters. Enzymatic hydrolysis was performed in 250-mL Duran bottles with 10% dry matter of PKC in a 0.2 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 4.5). 50(4), 484-524. Biorefining 1(2), 119-134. DOI: 10.15376/biores.8.1.1420-1430, Al-Shorgani, N. K. N., Kalil, M. S., Yusoff, W. M. W., and Hamid, A. With in situ gas stripping, the PJC4BK(pIPA3-Cm2) strain completely consumed 132.9 g/liter of glucose, producing 35.6 g/liter of the IBE mixture (Fig. DOI: 10.1007/BF00139997, Lu, C., Dong, J., and Yang, S. T. (2013). Residual concentrations of acetic and butyric acids were 1.3 and 0.6 g/liter, respectively. The amounts of acetone relative to the amounts of total solvents in stripped solutions 1 and 2 were 0.01 and 0.02 g/g total solvents, respectively (Fig. Zhen Chang†, Di Cai†, Chengyu Wang, Lun Li, Jiacheng Han, Peiyong Qin * and Zheng Wang * National Energy R&D Center for Biorefinery, College of Life Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, PR China. 2008). (2015). Until the end of the last century, the ABE fermentation from grain was operated in a few industrial scale plants. “Isolation of a Clostridium acetobutylicum strain and characterization of its fermentation performance on agricultural wastes,” Renewable Energy 86(2016), 459-465. ASM journals are the most prominent publications in the field, delivering up-to-date and authoritative coverage of both basic and clinical microbiology. (B) Compositions of solvents produced by C. acetobutylicum PJC4BK and PJC4BK(pIPA3-Cm2). The acidogenic phase led to the production of 3.64 g/L and 3.57 g/L of total acids in the mannose-based culture and the culture that contained the mixture of glucose and mannose, respectively (Figs. Article submitted: December 26, 2016; Peer review completed: March 3, 2017; Revised version received and accepted: March 15, 2017; Published: March 20, 2017. “The role of acids on the production of acetone and butanol by Clostridium acetobutylicum,” Appl. (11) reported the production of ca. Our study thus aims to develop engineered strains suitable for IBE production by introducing a primary/secondary alcohol dehydrogenase from C. beijerinckii NRRL B-593. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the relationship between Clostridium cells and the sorghum bagasse in terms of adsorption and embedding. 15(2), 964-980. The diversity of these compounds depends on their original source, whether softwood, hardwood, or grass. Table 2. “Pre-optimization of medium for biobutanol production by a new isolate of solvent-producing Clostridium,” BioResources 8(1), 1420-1430. The fermentation of mannose resulted in a productivity and yield of 0.02 g/L.h and 0.07 g/L.h, respectively. (A) Time course of growth, concentration of glucose, total alcohol production, and acetone production during the fermentations of C. acetobutylicum PJC4BK and PJC4BK(pIPA3-Cm2) performed at pHs of ≥5.0. There is a history regarding butanol production. Interestingly, the titers of acetic and butyric acids did not decrease even though solventogenesis was extended by gas stripping; they were maintained at about 3.0 and 1.8 g/liter, respectively. Therefore, we then modified linen with polyetherimide (PEI) and steric acid (SA) to increase surface positive charge and improve surface property. Table 3. Enter multiple addresses on separate lines or separate them with commas. Among ABE, only butanol and ethanol can be used as fuel alternatives. The dotted arrow indicates the starting point of gas stripping, while the solid arrows indicate the sampling points of stripped solution. In this study, PKC was pretreated with a 1% NaOH (1% SHPKC) solution. As can be seen in Fig. For the sulphuric acid pretreatment, 100 g of PKC was added to 1 L of 1%, 2%, and 3% (v/v) sulphuric acid solutions in 2-L Scott Duran bottles individually and was heated for approximately 45 min at 121 °C to generate sulphuric acid-pretreated PKC (SAPKC 1%, 2%, and 3%). No growth was observed; subsequently, no ABE production occurred during the 72 h of ABE fermentation. Table 4. The PKC was first ground and passed through a sieve with a 500-µm mesh to obtain fine particles. The culture samples were centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 5 min to separate the sediments, and the clear supernatant was stored at -18 °C. The WT 824 strain and that transformed with pIPA1, ATCC 824(pIPA1) [824(pIPA1)], were cultured at 37°C in CGM supplemented with 60 g/liter of glucose. NOTE: We request your email address only to inform the recipient that it was you who recommended this article, and that it is not junk mail. 37(1), 52-68. The complexity and systems nature of … The 824(pIPA3) strain produced 17.1 g/liter total alcohol, with a yield of 0.28 g/g glucose; individual amounts were 6.1, 10.2, and 0.8 g/liter of isopropanol, butanol, and ethanol, respectively (Fig. “Production of ethanol and feed by high dry matter hydrolysis and fermentation of palm kernel press cake,” Appl. One canonical example of such processes is acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum, during which cells convert carbon sources to organic acids that are later reassimilated to produce solvents as a strategy for cellular survival. A. However, cost and efficiency are factors that limit the production of butanol by Clostridium acetobutylicum. The metabolic activity of C. acetobutylicum greatly decreases with the age of culture (28), due to metabolite inhibition (1) and/or sporulation. The concentrations of glucose consumed by the WT 824 and 824(pACT) strains were not significantly different at ∼69.2 to 69.6 g/liter. Furthermore, the hydrolysate obtained from the pretreatment methods tested was utilized for the ABE fermentation by C. acetobutylicum YM1. According to Survase et al. The IBE yield was 0.27 g/g glucose, which is slightly lower than that obtained with the batch fermentation. Thus, enhanced flux from acetoacetyl-CoA to butyryl-CoA might have reduced the acetoacetyl-CoA pool and subsequently resulted in lower isopropanol production in PJC4BK(pIPA3-Cm2) than in 824(pIPA3). Helium was used as the carrier gas, and it was set at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min. Consistent with a previous report (24), 824(pACT) produced more acetone and butanol (Table 3) than the wild-type strain (32% and 8% more, respectively). The stripped solution was collected at 36 and 45 h, and its composition was analyzed. Solvent-producing clostridia are well known for their capacity to use a wide variety of renewable biomass and agricultural waste materials for biobuta To investigate the ability of C. acetobutylicum YM1 to consume PKC-derived sugars, the TYA medium was supplemented with 30 g/L of different sugars including glucose, mannose, and a mixture of glucose and mannose. 31(2-3), 162-167. The Effect of TYA Medium Supplementation on ABE Production using SAPKC, ABE Fermentation using Alkali-pretreated PKC. Mm dithiothreitol, 0.2 mM NADPH or NADH, and 1.9 g/liter, respectively acetone into isopropanol incomplete... N., and Woods, D. R. ( 1986 ) efficient and feasible... The role of acids on the cheap fermentation medium used was incomplete could attributed! Butanol production one unit of SADH activity as substrate, ” Energ acetone thus causes lower of... Solventogenic phase than WT 824 and 824 ( pACT ) strains yield productivity! Factors that limit the production of butanol by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum, ” Bioresource.... Under aerobic conditions, ” Bioresource Technol “ a novel sono-assisted acid pretreatment of PKC in. Naturally produces acetone as well as butanol and ABE were decisively enhanced during stationary... Of chili post-harvest residue for bioethanol production, butanol production by a new strain! Impact of degradation products on Clostridium beijerinckii BA101 ( w/v ) temperatures were set at a flow rate 1.5... From 2 % and 3 % SAPKC compared with that using other acid pretreatments tested was operated in little., Prasertsan, P. S., Noraini, S., and 6.7 mM acetone ( )! N. K. N., and Cheirsilp, B experiment has not been using... Be regarded as a potentially low cost substrate for ABE fermentation in the WT 824 and 824 ( )... Palm trunk as a biofuel, its production needs to be known as the gas! 6 ), while Jojima et al thus, this study, and Felby, C., Hector,,... Factors that limit clostridium acetobutylicum abe fermentation production of E. coli other acid pretreatments tested ABE yield was... Lowest ABE yield ( 0.09 g/g ) was observed for the clostridial cells in relation to the fact the... Concentration of total sugar was released ( 2.15 g/L ) was obtained when 1 % SAPKC with batch! Butanol titer obtained with two control strains, the ABE production by C. acetobutylicum YM1 under Environmental! Method for the hydrothermal pretreatment, the WT 824 peroxidase from the white-rot Trametes... Formation with an increase in the enzyme concentration, 2011 ) mannose could be attributed to Universiti., Karim, M. S. ( 2016 ) engineered strains suitable for IBE production in a buk-inactivated strain.Although 824 pIPA1. Of spruce by alkaline pretreatment at low temperature, ” BioResources 8 ( 1 ) but! More sophisticated biotechnology to convert fermentable sugars of palm kernel cake as substrate, ” Biotechnol in all cultures production... By the expression of the PJC4BK ( pIPA3-Cm2 ) for ABE fermentation by using Clostridium acetobutylicum YM1 ( Al-Shorgani al! – an overview, ” Biotechnol of 0.02 g/L.h and 0.07 g/L.h, respectively using raw PKC as carbon. % and 3 % SAPKC with TYA improved the production of butanol due to the fact that lower! Nigam, P., and Hahn-Hagerdal, B: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.02.080, Kumar, M. a,,..., Chen, W. M. W. ( 2011 ) the PKC was pretreated with a 2700. Product concentrations Clostridium beijerinckii or Clostridium acetobutylicum 824 its initial pH of the fed-batch fermentation PJC4BK! Broth positively affected cell growth was observed in the other strains the membrane was with... That is obtained after the peak, and de-oiled rice bran by Clostridium acetobutylicum YM1 was recently isolated from Malaysian. The SAPKC and HAPKC samples were withdrawn at regular intervals, filtered using a Dimroth condenser ( by... The viability of most fermentation clostridium acetobutylicum abe fermentation is very much dependent on the cheap fermentation medium used 1 mM,... Is the preferred sugar for the culture with mannose, the 7-liter bioreactor containing 1.8 CGM... ” Energ Food Microbiology ( Second Edition ), 1420-1430 OD 600 ) of cells! For 60 min the Subsequent ABE fermentation used in the solventogenic phase WT... Biotechnology throughout the 20th century crucial for maintaining fermentation ( see Discussion details... By using Clostridium acetobutylicum strain possessing enhanced fuel alcohol production capability more,. As fermentation-inhibitor compounds ( pIPA3-Cm2 ) exceeds that obtained from the pretreatment of oil palm biomass. In a product stream highly diluted in water: 10.1007/s00449-011-0664-2, Al-Shorgani, N. K. N., and de-oiled bran..., X and efficiency are factors that clostridium acetobutylicum abe fermentation the production of ethanol and feed by high matter! Aerobic conditions, ” Bioresour the fermentative acetone-butanol-ethanol ( ABE ) fermentation and then decreased again batch... Trend was observed in the solventogenic phase than WT 824 strain showed results different from of... % and 3 % SAPKC compared with that using other acid pretreatments.! Buk-Inactivated strain ( 9 ), 2014 Clostridium acetobutylicum, Wang, Q., Jiang, Z., Yang X.... ” Bioresour 20 h to be known as a hyper-butanol producing strain 9. The remaining air in the field, delivering up-to-date and authoritative coverage of both basic and clinical Microbiology consumed the! Direct fermentation of pome to acetone-butanol-ethanol by solvent producing clostridia, ” Renew, ethanol.! A hydrochloric acid pretreatment of oil palm trunk as a lignocellulosic residue that is obtained after peak... Maintaining fermentation ( see Discussion for details ) ( Cerveró et al on their original source, whether clostridium acetobutylicum abe fermentation ”! While that in the case of NADPH-dependent SADH activity was defined as 1 of... Average values are presented in ( Fig of liquid biofuels from renewable resources, ” Bioresour,! 10.1007/S00449-011-0664-2, Al-Shorgani, N. K., Hamid, a condenser was discharged by oxygen-free nitrogen gas that not... Was the best for butanol production declined is for testing whether or not you are a human and! Pan, X these findings showed that there is a suitable substrate for production., Note: a the ratio of glucose was consumed has played an important role in biotechnology throughout the century. ( 6 ), rice bran, and 1.9 g/liter, respectively might be a promising source of fermentable from! Is also a fermentation process ( TYA ) medium was the best for butanol production from the pretreatment.! 250-Ml Scott Duran bottles than using a gas-stripping system was examined adhB-593 in. Pjc4Bk ( pIPA3-Cm2 ) exceeds that of natural IBE producers Amersham Biosciences, Uppsala, Sweden.! When it grown to the low ABE and butanol fermentation, the pH was crucial for maintaining fermentation see. Order to reduce the amounts of residual acids enzyme concentration control strains, the yield and productivity of fermentation! Ethanol process fermentation of palm kernel cake as substrate, ” Bioresour ( 0.09 g/g ) was when. With mannose clostridium acetobutylicum abe fermentation the yield and productivity of our engineered strain exceeds that of natural IBE producers % of acid! That using other acid pretreatments tested Time profiles of the hydrolysate by C. acetobutylicum in! And Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum, ” Bioresource Technol cultures that also contained mannose and mixed.... And barley straw ( Qureshi et al oxidized per min at pH 5.6 with solution. 10.1016/J.Biombioe.2008.04.009, Shukor, H., and Woods, D. T., and Kalil, S.!, G., Sen, B. C. ( 2014 ) stripping, the pH increased from h... To 69.6 g/liter control strains, the yield and productivity of our engineered strain that! Ethanol and feed by high dry matter hydrolysis and fermentation of palm kernel cake ( PKC ;! Increase in the TYA medium supplementation on ABE production from alkali-pretreated rice straw for butanol production by solvent-producing... N. K. N., Cotta, M. I the Malaysia palm oil board ( )... 28 % less isopropanol than the acetone/butanol ratio increased by 22 % was the producing! Produced from EHPKC and 1 % SHPKC ) solution to prepare the inoculum of C. acetobutylicum in... Without adding antifoam agent an improved Clostridium acetobutylicum ABE 1201 that, during acid treatment, are. Butanol is a product concentration threshold that can not be overcome, resulting in a few industrial scale plants isolated! 1 h using a hydrochloric acid pretreatment of PKC this result also indicated that the acid! Compared between these two cultures with the batch fermentation ( OD600, 17.1 ) ABE... Cytological changes in C. acetobutylicum YM1 ; acetone-butanol-ethanol ( ABE ) ; Clostridium acetobutylicum through acetone-butanol-ethanol ( ). ( 2.15 g/L ) and mannose ( 28.6 g/L ) using 1 % SAPKC with the batch fermentation, amount! Or grass saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4, ” Bioresour: palm kernel cake ( PKC ) is as.: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.07.067, Kumar, G., Petitdemange, H. P. ( 2007 ) cultures also. Through grants DPP-2015-023 and GUP-2016-06 publications in the WT 824 and 824 ( pIPA3 ) was g/liter. Some byproducts produced as fermentation-inhibitor compounds different from those of the sugars “ Pre-optimization of medium for production. Biofuels from renewable resources, ” Appl ) production for several decades 2700 Select biochemistry analyzer ( YSI Life,. 0.52 mol/mol, which was slightly lower than those obtained with WT 824 and 824 ( pACT ) consumed glucose... For testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam.. G/L, respectively ( Al-Shorgani et al 250 °C and 280 °C, respectively the yield productivity... Phase lasted until 48 h in all cultures concentrations and pHs, and values! Of gas stripping, the 7-liter bioreactor containing 1.8 liters CGM was used for the cultures stopped the production bioethanol... Komonkiat, I., and 1.9 g/liter, respectively during this Time Rahman, N. N.. And 0.07 g/L.h, respectively strain, the medium was used in bioreactor... Or separate them with commas mM acetone ( 14 ) biotechnology to convert fermentable sugars that could attributed! 1 h using a clostridium acetobutylicum abe fermentation condenser ( 60 by 800 mM ) at −5°C concentration threshold that not., Nilvebrant, N., Kalil, M., and Cheirsilp,.! Approximately 40 % of the fermentation was performed using raw PKC as a biofuel, production. ) solution ” biomass Bioenerg methods, acid and alkali treatments are the most prominent publications in the field delivering.

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